FAQ's | Terumo India Skill Lab

What is angioplasty?

Angioplasty is a procedure to remove blockage from clogged arteries and restore normal blood supply to heart muscles. 

How much rest is required after angioplasty?

After having a planned angioplasty, you will be discharged on the same day or following day of angioplasty. Doctor will advise a complete rest of 7-10 days. After a couple of week you will be able to return to normal routine but avoid strenuous activity follow the precautions, as advised by your cardiologist.

How is angioplasty done?

Angioplasty is done through following steps:

  • A catheter is inserted into artery through your groin or arm and threaded through the arterial system until it gets into a coronary (heart) artery
  • A very thin wire is threaded through the catheter and across the blockage
  • An expandable balloon attached to tip of a catheter is passed to the blockage, over this wire
  • Balloon is inflated to push plaque to the side and stretches the artery open. This may be done more than once
  • After opening of blocked artery, the blood flow is restored and balloon and catheters are taken out

What is angioplasty surgery?

Angioplasty surgery is a minimally invasive endovascular procedure to widen narrowed blood vessels (arteries and veins) around the heart in order to restore the natural flow of blood.

Is angioplasty safe?

Angioplasty is generally safe, but it can lead to some complications in patients such as:

  • Allergic reaction to the drug used in a drug-eluting stent, or the x-ray dye
  • Bleeding or clotting in the area where the catheter was inserted
  • Blood clot
  • Damage to a heart valve or blood vessel
  • Heart attack and Stroke (in rare cases)
  • Kidney failure in people who already have kidney problems)
  • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias)

What is the difference between angiogram and angioplasty?

Angiogram provides detailed information about heart function and blood vessels whereas Angioplasty is a procedure to expand narrow or blocked arteries that may follow on from an angiogram.

Why angioplasty is done?

Angioplasty is done to remove plaque deposits in artery or veins so that people can get rid of blockages that put them at high risk of heart attack and death. 

Is angioplasty considered heart surgery?

Angioplasty is not considered as a major heart surgery but it is endovascular procedure and minimally invasive cardiac intervention.

When to do angioplasty?

Angioplasty is recommended in patients with severe chest pain, narrowed or blocked arteries due to plaque deposits and reduced blood flow through blocked artery.

How long after angioplasty can I exercise?

You can exercise after one week after procedure. Start with walking and light weight exercise and avoid strenuous exercise routine for a couple of weeks. Slowly add intensity to your workouts and follow detailed instructions for exercise, as advised by physician. 

Can angioplasty be done immediately after angiography?

Yes, angioplasty can be done immediately after angiography, if your doctor observe excessive blockage in arteries during your coronary angiogram.

Can angioplasty cause heart attack?

Angioplasty can cause heart attack as a complication of procedure in some patients, which is very rare (5 patients in 100). But in long run, timely angioplasty limits the damage to heart muscles and prevents a heart attack from turning into a deadly cardiac arrest. It is a better treatment for heart attack patients for preventing risk of another attack in future. 

How much blockage requires angioplasty?

Obstruction of 50 percent or more in the left main coronary artery or 70 percent or more in a major epicardial (a vessel lying on the heart) or branch vessel is considered to be significant for carrying out angioplasty.

What is bypass surgery?

Bypass surgery is a surgical procedure in which surgeon grafts blood vessels from another area of body onto damaged arteries to reroute the blood flow around blockages in the arteries.

What is heart bypass surgery?

Heart bypass surgery is a procedure to improve blood flow to your heart by creating a new route for blood and oxygen to go around the blockage to reach your heart.

What are the after effects of bypass surgery?

After a successful bypass surgery:

  • Your blood flow will improve and symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest tightness, and high blood pressure will reduce
  • The risk of heart attack will decrease but some healthy lifestyle changes are required to prevent future heart disease
  • Patients will have a better quality of life after surgery
  • Person will likely to have an aspirin every day for rest of life
  • Complications such as infection in incision, bleeding, arrhythmia and stroke may appear but are unusual and rare

How do they do heart bypass surgery?

Heart bypass surgery is carried by following steps:

  • General anesthesia is provided and you are allowed to sleep for 3-6 hours
  • A breathing tube is inserted through your mouth and attached to a ventilator, which breathes for you during and immediately after the surgery
  • A long incision in the center of chest, along the breastbone is made. Incision is spread open the rib cage to expose the heart
  • A heart-lung machine is attached to keep blood and oxygen flow through your body
  • The surgeon takes a section of health blood vessel from inside of chest or from lower leg and attaches it to ends above and below the blocked artery to redirect the blood flow across the artery.
  • After completing graft, surgeon will restore your heart beat, disconnect you from heart-lung machine
  • The incision in your chest will be closed using a wire and remains until your bone heals

How long it takes to recover from bypass surgery?

Recovering from a bypass surgery takes time and every patient has its own speed of recovery. You will be able to sit after 1 day, walk after 3 days and climb stairs after 5-6 days. Most of the patients recover fully within 12 weeks of surgery but it may take longer in patients who experienced complications during or after surgery.

What is coronary artery bypass surgery?

Coronary bypass surgery is a surgical intervention to redirect blood flow around a section of a blocked or partially blocked artery in your heart using a graft tissue.

How serious is bypass surgery?

Heart bypass surgeries are serious procedures but effective. Patients usually get relief from their symptoms without needing long-term medication. More severe the heart disease, higher the risk of complications. 

Is heart bypass surgery safe?

Heart bypass surgery is a relatively safe and effective procedure which eases symptoms of coronary artery disease, such as chest pain. It also reduces the risk of heart attack and death in long run.

Do they stop your heart during bypass surgery?

Yes, the surgeons temporarily stop your heart during coronary bypass surgery. A heart-lung machine is attached to completely take over the function of your heart and lungs.

How much rest is needed after bypass surgery?

Adequate rest for about 4-6 weeks is essential after a bypass surgery as the recovery after bypass surgery is slow. After about 6 weeks you will able to resume your normal activities including working and driving.

What is a stent?

A stent is a tiny wire mesh tube used to treat narrowed or blocked coronary artery due to an underlying atherosclerosis disease.

What is a heart stent?

Heart stent are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into the clogged artery for opening artery and restoring blood flow.

What percent of blockage requires a stent?

Severe blockage of 70% or more requires a stent.

Does having a stent shorten your life?

The life expectancy after getting a stent is dependent on the underlying heart disease, age, and medical condition of the patient. For instance a younger patient who has a strong heart and has never experienced a heart attack, will be expected to live a full and active lifespan whereas a person in his seventies or eighties with previous multiple heart attacks will live a shorter life span after a stent insertion.

How many stents can be placed in one artery or how many stents can be put in a human heart?

The limit of placing stents in one artery and in human heart has not been established yet.

Is there pain after stent surgery?

Patients with stent surgery experiences stretch pain symptoms due to the dilation and stretching of a coronary artery that’s caused when a coronary stent is being implanted inside that artery.

What is the life of a stent in heart?

Stents will last forever if they are made of some sort of metal.

Is stent safe for heart?

Stents are generally considered safe if used and inserted properly.

What are stents made of?

Stents are made of metal, plastic mesh-like material and fabric.

What is heart stent surgery?

Heart stent surgery is a minimally invasive procedure in which a stent is placed in the clogged artery. It is threaded with a catheter attached with a balloon. Balloon is inflated and deflated several times to move plaque and open artery. It restores the blood flow to heart. 

What is recovery time for stent surgery?

The recovery time for stent surgery varies according to patient’s speed of recovery and complications. Usually a patient may be able to resume his/her normal activities within a week of a successful stent surgery.

When is a stent necessary?

A stent is necessary when a patient develops chronic symptoms from stable narrowing of a coronary artery.

Can stents be removed?

It is difficult it remove stent but can be replaced.

What is a stent procedure called?

The procedure to place a coronary stent is called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), commonly known as coronary angioplasty.

Do stents need replacing?

Stents may need replacement if they are blocked by plaque deposition.

How to prevent heart attack or how to control heart attack?

Heart attack can be prevented or controlled by several measures such as:

  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Eat a heart healthy diet
  • Reduce consumption of sodium and sugar
  • Control your blood pressure
  • Keep your cholesterol and triglyceride levels under control
  • Get regular exercise
  • Avoid smoking and drinking
  • Manage stress and anxiety

What are the symptoms of a heart attack or what are the signs of a heart attack?

Common signs and symptoms of heart attack include:

  • Pain or aching sensation in chest or arms that may radiate to your neck, jaw or back
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea, indigestion, heartburn or abdominal pain
  • Cold sweat and chills
  • Lightheadedness or sudden dizziness
  • Fatigue

What is a heart attack?

A heart attack is a cardiovascular disorder which occurs when blood flow to heart is reduced or completely cut off. It is caused due to plaque deposition in arteries that supplies blood to heart. 

Can heart attack symptoms last for months or can heart attack symptoms last for days?

The symptoms of heart attack last for a few minutes to a few hours. Among various heart attack symptoms, chest pain occurring continuously for several days, weeks or months.

How to stop a heart attack immediately?

There is no fast way to stop a heart attack immediately without seeking emergency medical treatment at hospital. If you experience a heart attack, call ambulance and take aspirin.

What happens in a heart attack?

In a heart attack, the flow of blood to heart is blocked. The interrupted blood flow can damage or destroy part of heart muscles. It is caused due to narrowed or blocked arteries. 

What is the difference between heart attack and cardiac arrest?

A heart attack is a cardiovascular abnormality that is related with reduced or blocked blood flow whereas cardiac arrest occurs when the heart malfunctions and suddenly stops beating unexpectedly. The heart attack is a circulation problem and cardiac arrest is an electrical problem.

What to do during heart attack or what to do in case of heart attack?

  • Don’t ignore the symptoms of heart attack and seek emergency medical care as soon as possible
  • Do not drive under these circumstances and call ambulance for help
  • Swallow an aspirin if you are not allergic to aspirin
  • Take nitroglycerin, if you think you are having a heart attack and your doctor has previously prescribed nitroglycerin for you
  • Begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), if the person is unconscious. If you are not trained to perform CPR, the perform only chest compressions (about 100 to 120 compressions a minute)
  • Use an automated external defibrillator (AED) if available immediately available and follow the device instructions for using it

Can anxiety cause a heart attack?

Yes, anxiety can lead to heart disease as a result of negative long term effects on heart health. Anxiety increases blood pressure, rapid heart rate and sleep problems which can aggravate the risk of heart attack.

Can aspirin prevent heart attack?

Yes, aspirin can prevent a heart attack due to its anti-clotting action. It slows clotting and decreases the size of the forming blood clot when taken during a heart attack. 

How angiography is done?

During angiography, a liquid dye is injected through a thin, flexible tube, called catheter. This catheter is threaded into the desired artery from the access point. The access point is usually in arm or in groin. The dye helps in visualizing the blood flow inside blood vessels on an X-ray and shows any narrowed or blocked area in the blood vessel. After completing the procedure, the dye is eliminated from your body through kidneys and urine.

Why angiography is done?

Angiography is done to study narrow, blocked, enlarged, or malformed arteries or veins in many parts of your body, including your brain, heart, abdomen, and legs.

What is coronary angiography?

Coronary Angiography is an imaging test that uses X-rays to view any malfunction in blood vessels of body.

Is angiography necessary after heart attack?

Yes, it is necessary to have an angiography as part of urgent angioplasty procedure after heart attack.

What is the meaning of angiography?

Angiography means the radiographic visualization of the blood vessels after injecting a contrast agent or a special dye.

How much time it takes for angiography?

Angioplasty usually lasts for 30 minutes to 2 hours, but it may take longer if you do have a stent placement (angioplasty) during angiography.

How to check heart blockage without angiography?

Various other simple non invasive tests can be used to determine blockage in blood vessels in heart. These tests include:

  • Simple chest X-ray
  • Holter monitoring (a type of ECG)
  • Echocardiogram
  • Exercise stress test
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan 

When to go for angiography?

You should go for angiography if you have:

  • Symptoms of coronary artery disease such as chest pain
  • Pain in your chest, jaw, neck or arm
  • New or increasing chest pain (unstable angina)
  • Birth defect related to heart (congenital heart disease)
  • Other blood vessel problems or a chest injury
  • Heart valve problems

When to do angiography?

Angiography is usually done when a patient is at increased risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure and a heart attack.  It can be performed in patients having a heart surgery. 

Can angiography be avoided?

An angiography can be avoided if you have a lower risk of heart attack and your angina symptoms can easily controlled by medicines and lifestyle changes. It may not be needed if other tests are good enough to provide necessary information to guide your treatment. 

When is angiography recommended?

Angiography is usually recommended by doctors when:

  • You have angina for the first time
  • Your angina that is becoming worse
  • You have atypical chest pain, when other tests are normal
  • You had an abnormal heart stress test
  • You have heart failure
  • You have been diagnosed with a heart attack

Why angiography is needed?

Angiography is needed to determine the problems with blood circulation and exact cause of abrupt blood supply. Circulation problems can affect the major internal organs of body such as heart, lungs brain, and kidneys. 

Does angiography remove blockages?

Angiography can remove blockages if doctor open clogged arteries (angioplasty) during your coronary angiography.

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